Elisabeth Kuyper (1877–1953), the Netherlands
Conductor and composer. Began studying music at age 12 (teachers included Heinrich Barth). Later she studied composition with Max Bruch at the Hochschule für Musik, Berlin. She has taught conducting at the Academy of Music in Warsaw and founded a woman’s orchestra in Holland, one in the United Kingdom (the London Women’s Symphony Orchestra), and one in New York. She has composed music for chamber ensemble, including violin sonatas, and songs.